Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:IEEE journal of selected topics in quantum electronics : a publication of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society, Volume 2016, Issue 3 (2016)
Here, we review our current knowledge on the etiology and treatment of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Current treatment options have significant limitations in terms of efficacy. With the combination of 1) a suitable preclinical microvascular model, 2) laser speckle imaging (LSI) to evaluate blood-flow dynamics, and 3) a longitudinal experimental design, rapid preclinical assessment of new phototherapies can be translated from the lab to the clinic. The combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and pulsed-dye laser (PDL) irradiation achieves a synergistic effect that reduces the required radiant exposures of the individual phototherapies to achieve persistent vascular shutdown. PDL combined with anti-angiogenic agents is a promising strategy to achieve persistent vascular shutdown by preventing reformation and reperfusion of photocoagulated blood vessels. Integration of LSI into the clinical workflow may lead to surgical image guidance that maximizes acute photocoagulation, is expected to improve PWS therapeutic outcome. Continued integration of noninvasive optical imaging technologies and biochemical analysis collectively are expected to lead to more robust treatment strategies.