Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Lasers in surgery and medicine (2017)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alternative treatments are needed to achieve consistent and more complete port wine stain (PWS) removal, especially in darker skin types; photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative treatment. To this end, we previously reported on Talaporfin Sodium (TS)-mediated PDT. It is essential to understand treatment tissue effects to design a protocol that will achieve selective vascular injury without ulceration and scarring. The objective of this work is to assess skin changes associated with TS-mediated PDT with clinically relevant treatment parameters.
STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed TS (0.75 mg/kg)-mediated PDT (664 nm) on Sprague Dawley rats. Radiant exposures were varied between 15 and 100 J/cm(2) . We took skin biopsies from subjects at 9 hours following PDT. We assessed the degree and depth of vascular and surrounding tissue injury using histology and immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: TS-mediated PDT at 0.75 mg/kg combined with 15 and 25 J/cm(2) light doses resulted in vascular injury with minimal epidermal damage. At light dose of 50 J/cm(2) , epidermal damage was noted with vascular injury. At light doses >50 J/cm(2) , both vascular and surrounding tissue injury were observed in the forms of vasculitis, extravasated red blood cells, and coagulative necrosis. Extensive coagulative necrosis involving deeper adnexal structures was observed for 75 and 100 J/cm(2) light doses. Observed depth of injury increased with increasing radiant exposure, although this relationship was not linear.
CONCLUSION: TS-mediated PDT can cause selective vascular injury; however, at higher light doses, significant extra-vascular injury was observed. This information can be used to contribute to design of safe protocols to be used for treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.